Multas, sanciones, infracciones y su prescripción (Parte III,FINAL)

Por Pablo Hitos Madrid, abogado.

En anteriores publicaciones y continuando con el hilo en relación a esta temática comentábamos lo siguiente:

El plazo de prescripción de las sanciones consistentes en multa pecuniaria será de cuatro años y, el de las demás sanciones, será de un año, computados desde el día siguiente a aquél en que adquiera firmeza en vía administrativa la sanción.

El cómputo y la interrupción del plazo de prescripción del derecho de la Administración para exigir el pago de las sanciones consistentes en multa pecuniaria se regirán por lo dispuesto en la Ley General Tributaria.

Por lo tanto:

Hay que saber diferenciar entre una SANCIÓN y una INFRACCIÓN.

Las infracciones y su plazo para prescribir lo hemos explicado anteriormente. La infracción es la acción u omisión que es contraria a la ley. Ej: conducir bebido, saltarse un stop, estacionar sobre la acera etc… Una omisión sería no ponerse el cinturón o no encender las luces.

Las sanciones tienen diferente plazo de prescripción que las infracciones, y no son la misma cosa. Una sanción es la consecuencia jurídica que sigue a la infracción, es decir, la multa. La infracción es saltarse el stop, la sanción es 200€ de multa.

La sanción ya es firme en vía administrativa y, por lo tanto, la única posibilidad que tenemos ahora para interponer recurso contra ella es acudir a la vía contencioso-administrativa, es decir, a los Tribunales;


Plazos de prescripción de sanciones:

* Si la sanción es PECUNIARIA (cuando hablamos de dinero, es decir 100€, 200€, 500€, etc.), el plazo para prescribir es de 4 años. Esto supone que si la sanción cobra firmeza el 1 de Enero de 2008 y el denunciado no paga la multa, la administración mediante vía de apremio intentará cobrarla antes del 1 de Enero de 2012 y si no lo hace la sanción prescribe.

* Para el resto de sanciones es de 1 año (por ejemplo, retirada del carné, derecho a tener una autoescuela, etc).

Este plazo de prescripción comienza a contar desde que el expediente administrativo de la multa ha terminado.

A raíz de la entrada en vigor de la nueva ley de tráfico, conviven multas con un plazo de prescripción de un año y multas con plazo de prescripción de cuatro años, con lo cual es importante distinguir unas y otras.


Para finalizar podemos decir que existen dos plazos de prescripción: el de la infracción y el de la sanción.

Infracción, desde que cometo el hecho hasta que se inicia el procedimiento sancionador o expediente sancionador.

Si pasan los 3 meses o 6 sin que hayan comenzado el expediente pues es como si mi infracción no hubiera ocurrido y no tengo que pagar nada.

Sanción, desde que se ha resuelto que tengo que pagar la multa hasta que me la cobran. Si pasa el plazo de pago sin que me la hayan cobrado por causas en las que la administración tiene la culpa, pues ya prescribe y no tengo obligación de pagar.


No olviden expresar sus opiniones y dudas en la caja de comentarios.

Muchas gracias por su atención.


50 comentarios para “Multas, sanciones, infracciones y su prescripción (Parte III,FINAL)”

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