Por Francisco Castro Montero.



La obligación,  cuantía y forma de pago de la pensión de alimentos puede ser acordada de mutuo acuerdo por los cónyuges cuando pactan el convenio regulador, o venir impuesta por la sentencia que se dicte en los procedimientos de separación o divorcio contencioso.

El artículo 148 del Código Civil dice que: “La obligación de dar alimentos será exigible desde que los necesitare, para subsistir, la persona que tenga derecho a percibirlos; pero no se abonarán sino desde la fecha en que se interponga la demanda.

 Se verificará el pago por meses anticipados, y, cuando fallezca el alimentista, sus herederos no estarán obligados a devolver lo que éste hubiese recibido anticipadamente.

 El Juez, a petición del alimentista o del Ministerio Fiscal, ordenará con urgencia las medidas cautelares oportunas para asegurar los anticipos que haga una Entidad pública u otra persona y proveer a las futuras necesidades”.

En relación con el párrafo primero de este artículo he de decir que el pago de los alimentos será desde la fecha en que se interponga la  demanda si se trata de hijos menores,  puesto que, tratándose de hijos mayores de edad que vivan de forma dependiente de sus padres, la postura no está clara, ya que hay una línea que considera que el pago de los alimentos a los hijos mayores de edad será desde la sentencia y no desde la demanda.

Esta línea es de jurisprudencia menor emitida por algunas Audiencias que entiende que, tratándose de un hijo mayor dependiente de sus padres,  la reclamación de alimentos hecha escapa en realidad del ámbito de influencia de la patria potestad y se encuadra más propiamente en el marco de las relaciones paterno-filiales, lo que le confiere unas características propias como consecuencia de las circunstancias en las que se declara la obligación de prestarlos.

Por otra parte, no debe olvidarse la posibilidad de que se acuerden medidas provisionalísimas o previas a la demanda de divorcio o separación, lo que se debe de tener en cuenta para determinar desde cuando surge la obligación de pago.

Por último, establece el artículo 1966 del Código Civil que: “Por el transcurso de cinco años prescriben las acciones para exigir el cumplimiento de las obligaciones siguientes: 1ª.  La de pagar pensiones alimenticias….”. Esto quiere decir que la reclamación de cantidades derivadas de la pensión de alimentos prescribe a los 5 años. Por ejemplo,  si estamos en diciembre de 2.014,  podremos reclamar alimentos que se adeuden desde diciembre de 2.009 en adelante, los anteriores habrán prescrito.


En próximas entradas volveremos con este tema, mientras tanto, no duden en expresar sus opiniones en la caja de comentarios.

Muchas gracias.









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